What effects do anabolic steroids have on muscles

Some bodybuilders and athletes use trenbolone esters for their muscle-building and otherwise performance-enhancing effects. [5] Such use is illegal in the United States and many other countries. The DEA classifies trenbolone and its esters as Schedule III controlled substances under the Controlled Substances Act . [18] Trenbolone is classified as a Schedule 4 drug in Canada [19] and a class C drug with no penalty for personal use or possession in the United Kingdom . [20] Use or possession of steroids without a prescription is a crime in Australia . [21] The infamous "duchess" cocktail administered to Russian athletes at the Sochi Winter Olympics consisted of oxandrolone , a metenolone ester, and a trenbolone ester. [22]

Alen, Reinila, & Reijo (1985) observed that serum testosterone level tended to increase throughout a 26 week cycle of various AAS until abruptly dropping below normal levels during cessation. When athletes discontinue the use of AAS they experience a refractory period where they do not produce physiological amounts of endogenous testosterone (Di Pasquale, 1992a). Anabolic-androgenic steroid can reduce endogenous testosterone, gonadotrophic hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin (Yesalis, Wright, & Bahrke, 1989). Weight trained athletes have been shown to have low serum testosterone concentrations immediately after cessation of an AAS cycle but return to normal within weeks (Alen, Reinila, & Reijo, 1985).

Transdermal patches (adhesive patches placed on the skin) may also be used to deliver a steady dose through the skin and into the bloodstream. Testosterone-containing creams and gels that are applied daily to the skin are also available, but absorption is inefficient (roughly 10%, varying between individuals) and these treatments tend to be more expensive. Individuals who are especially physically active and/or bathe often may not be good candidates, since the medication can be washed off and may take up to six hours to be fully absorbed. There is also the risk that an intimate partner or child may come in contact with the application site and inadvertently dose himself or herself; children and women are highly sensitive to testosterone and can suffer unintended masculinization and health effects, even from small doses. Injection is the most common method used by individuals administering AAS for non-medical purposes. [45]

What effects do anabolic steroids have on muscles

what effects do anabolic steroids have on muscles

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