The caudal approach to the epidural space involves the use of a Tuohy needle, an intravenous catheter, or a hypodermic needle to puncture the sacrococcygeal membrane . Injecting local anaesthetic at this level can result in analgesia and/or anaesthesia of the perineum and groin areas. The caudal epidural technique is often used in infants and children undergoing surgery involving the groin, pelvis or lower extremities. In this population, caudal epidural analgesia is usually combined with general anaesthesia since most children do not tolerate surgery when regional anaesthesia is employed as the sole modality.
When asked what advice she would offer to other dog owners, Catherine suggests that owners never assume that their dog is allergic to just one thing. If the dog has allergies, they are usually allergic to several different elements. She also suggests that if dog owners decide to use Prednisone, they should go with the lowest dosage available and look into giving them milk thistle to prevent against liver damage. Owners should be open to trying new medications and therapies and never give up. It’s important to try everything they can to keep their pup as comfortable as possible.
During the recovery period, it is best to have a comfortable and quiet space available for your companion to recuperate with plenty of access to food and water if they need it. Your pet may be asymptomatic during all or part of their treatment, and do not need to have their activity restricted unless instructed by your veterinarian or other signs of distress are noted. Infections by both varieties of fungus are zoonotic and can be transmitted to humans. The very young, the very old and those with compromised immune responses should avoid contact with the infective yeast to prevent transmission. Both topical and oral antifungal treatments can take several weeks to completely clear up an infection and your veterinarian may request that you bring your pet in for further cultures and testing, both during treatment and after. Although some dogs may require lifelong treatments to manage outbreaks, the overall prognosis is favorable.