It is possible to safely and accurately administer your injectable medications in the privacy of your home. Safe injection practices protect the patient, the person giving the injection, as well as the environment. The two common types of injections administered at home are subcutaneous, which includes the administration of insulin, and intramuscular injections. If you must give yourself injections or give injections to a close friend or family member, you must first learn how to do so from the healthcare provider who is prescribing the medication to be injected.
Confirmatory tests include MRI, examination under anesthesia, and arthroscopy. Ability to detect labral signs indicative of a tear is probably the least accurate test for the shoulder. An O'Brien's test can be used as well as attempts at relaxation and circumduction of the arm overhead with a posterior force stressing the anterior superior labrum. If a patient has signs of a labral tear with clicking or popping or a positive O'Brien's test, the clinician should try to determine whether the findings are associated with instability, which would have profound implications on type of treatment and recovery time.
Tendonitis, more properly termed tendinosis, results from acute or chronic stress of the rotator cuff tendons. Rotator cuff impingement results from repeated irritation of the rotator cuff beneath the acromial arch. 20 Repetitive overhead reaching and weight training are frequent precipitants of rotator cuff tendinosis and impingement. Rotator cuff tendinosis is diagnosed by eliciting pain or weakness with stress testing of the rotator cuff muscles. There are two common tests used for diagnosis of impingement. The Hawkins' test elicits pain with the shoulder passively flexed to 90 degrees and internally rotated. 21 The Neer's test elicits pain with passive abduction of the shoulder to 180 degrees. 22 Radiographs, if obtained, may show calcific deposits in the subacromial space or at the insertion of the supraspinatus tendon to the greater tuberosity. In cases of impingement, curvature of the acromion process may be seen.