Placental steroidogenesis

When activated macrophages start to secrete IL-1, which synergistically with CRH increases ACTH, [10] T-cells also secrete glucosteroid response modifying factor (GRMF), as well as IL-1; both increase the amount of cortisol required to inhibit almost all the immune cells. [11] Immune cells then assume their own regulation, but at a higher cortisol setpoint. The increase in cortisol in diarrheic calves is minimal over healthy calves, however, and falls over time. [58] The cells do not lose all their fight-or-flight override because of interleukin-1's synergism with CRH. Cortisol even has a negative feedback effect on interleukin-1 [10] —especially useful to treat diseases that force the hypothalamus to secrete too much CRH, such as those caused by endotoxic bacteria. The suppressor immune cells are not affected by GRMF, [11] so the immune cells' effective setpoint may be even higher than the setpoint for physiological processes. GRMF affects primarily the liver (rather than the kidneys) for some physiological processes. [59]

Edwin Gómez-Ramirez, Javier F. Borbón, Jaime F. González, Pedro R. Eslava Mocha, Amutha Chinnaiah, P. Subramanian, Leslie Guzmán Beltran, Paula Esquinas, Estefany L. García, Gina P. Sierra, Hernán Hurtado Giraldo, Wilson Ramirez Duarte, Dang Thi Hoang Oanh, Truong Quoc Phu, Miriam Alcivar, Diego Alejandro, Acacia Alcivar-Warren (2015) ADVERSE HEALTH EFFECTS TO FISH CAUSED BY ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS (EDCs) – LITERATURE REVIEW AND PRELIMINARY RESULTS   ON PATTERNS OF NEURONAL ACTIVATION IN THE OLFACTORY BULBS OF WHITE CACHAMA Piaractus brachypomus AND HORMONAL CHANGES IN TILAPIA Oreochromis sp. CAUSED BY EXPOSURES TO COMMERCIAL PRESENTATIONS OF GLYPHOSATE.  Aquaculture America 2015   https:///meetings/?Id=35068

Progesterone is produced from cholesterol with pregnenolone as a metabolic intermediate . In the first step in the steroidogenic pathway , cholesterol is converted into pregnenolone, which serves as the precursor to the progestogens progesterone and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone. These progestogens, along with another steroid, 17α-hydroxypregnenolone , are the precursors of all other endogenous steroids, including the androgens, estrogens, glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and neurosteroids. Thus, many tissues producing steroids, including the adrenal glands , testes , and ovaries , produce progestogens.

      This hormone is produced by the placental trophoblast and some other tissues. It is not produced by the fetal liver. HCG levels in the maternal serum rise in early pregnancy. A peak is reached between 8 and 10 weeks of pregnancy. There is then a rapid reduction to 18 weeks. After this time the levels remain fairly constant until delivery. HCG is believed to rescue to corpus luteum from disolution. It is believed to promote placental steroidogenesis. In the male fetus it is important in the induction of fetal testosterone secretion by Leydig cells. HCG may be immunosuppressive.

Placental steroidogenesis

placental steroidogenesis

      This hormone is produced by the placental trophoblast and some other tissues. It is not produced by the fetal liver. HCG levels in the maternal serum rise in early pregnancy. A peak is reached between 8 and 10 weeks of pregnancy. There is then a rapid reduction to 18 weeks. After this time the levels remain fairly constant until delivery. HCG is believed to rescue to corpus luteum from disolution. It is believed to promote placental steroidogenesis. In the male fetus it is important in the induction of fetal testosterone secretion by Leydig cells. HCG may be immunosuppressive.

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