Transdermal patches (adhesive patches placed on the skin) may also be used to deliver a steady dose through the skin and into the bloodstream. Testosterone-containing creams and gels that are applied daily to the skin are also available, but absorption is inefficient (roughly 10%, varying between individuals) and these treatments tend to be more expensive. Individuals who are especially physically active and/or bathe often may not be good candidates, since the medication can be washed off and may take up to six hours to be fully absorbed. There is also the risk that an intimate partner or child may come in contact with the application site and inadvertently dose himself or herself; children and women are highly sensitive to testosterone and can suffer unintended masculinization and health effects, even from small doses. Injection is the most common method used by individuals administering AAS for non-medical purposes. 
Catlin did not know of anyone who has enacted the kind of voluntary entry program he advocates. "I wish I did," he said. "People are talking about it. It takes time to realize with these non-voluntary programs, it takes a year or two to figure out they're not working, and then they start to look around." At the very least, with the failure of the Texas program, states now realize these programs aren't worth the price tag. Florida canceled its program after one year, and Illinois's lasted only two. Delaware opted for an educational program over testing, and Delaware Interscholastic Athletic Association Executive Director Kevin Charles told me in an e-mail Tuesday, "The main reason was it didn't appear to be cost effective."
Prep players with insight about PEDs understood that testing was no protection, just a false hope for prevention in the vast population of school athletes. Urinalysis could not prevent doping anywhere in football, although incessantly promoted by the sport’s doctors, employee scientists, and other associates of the game. All players, preps to pros, could juice with impunity through undetectable steroids, HGH, and more tissue-building substances. Even the NFL, easily the game’s most controlled and resourceful environment for battling doping, could not prevent systemic use among its 1,700 athletes and personnel such as coaches.