The legal status of anabolic steroids varies from country to country. In the ., anabolic steroids are listed as Schedule III controlled substances under the Controlled Substances Act , which makes the possession of such substances without a prescription a federal crime punishable by up to seven years in prison.  In Canada, anabolic steroids and their derivatives are part of the Controlled drugs and substances act and are Schedule IV substances, meaning that it is illegal to obtain or sell them without a prescription. However, possession is not punishable, a consequence reserved for schedule I, II or III substances. Those guilty of buying or selling anabolic steroids in Canada can be imprisoned for up to 18 months. Importing or exporting anabolic steroids also carry similar penalties.  Anabolic steroids are also illegal without prescription in Australia,  Argentina, Brazil, and Portugal,  and are listed as Schedule 4 Controlled Drugs in the United Kingdom.
One of the follow-up solutions to a cystectomy is the creation of a neobladder (one form of which is named Studer's Ileal Neobladder or the Studer Pouch). A neobladder is a loop of intestine that is surgically fashioned into a pouch and placed in the location of the original bladder. It is then attached to the ureters and the urethra , thus simulating the function of the original organ. The kidneys filter the urine into the neobladder which can often be emptied by muscle control. There are side effects of this complex surgery, including partial shut down of the digestive system (in response to removal of the piece of intestine), incontinence , and the loss of the nerves that signal a full bladder.